To increase the chances of locating a search term or phrase, follow the guidelines below:
|use "quotation marks" around phrases||banana pear "apple pie"|
|add + in front of any word or phrase to require it||apple pie" -salad +"ice cream"|
|add - in front of any word or phrase to exclude it||apple pie" -salad +"ice cream"|
Special Characters and Boolean Terms
Typing these special characters will modify results.
|?||matches any single character|
|Example: appl?||matches apply or apple|
|*||matches any number of characters|
|Example: appl*ion||matches application|
|~~||indicates numeric range|
|Example: 14~~18||looks for 14, 15, 16, 17 or 18|
Boolean terms find group of words or phrases linked by and, or, not, w/.
|apple and pear||both words must be present|
|apple or pear||either word can be present|
|apple w/5 pear||apple must occur within 5 words of pear|
|apple not w/5 pear||apple must occur, but not within 5 words of pear|
|apple and not pear||only apple must be present|
|name contains smith||the field name must contain smith|
|apple w/5 xfirstword||apple must occur in the first five words|
|apple w/5 xlastword||apple must occur in the last five words|
Search excludes Boolean structural connector words from the search operator which include and, or, not. To search for a phrase that contains one of the connector words – such as the phrase not relevant:
Quote a connector word or the phrase it is in (“not relevant”), or put a tilde after the connector.
- "clear and convincing evidence"
- "to be or not to be"
If you use more than one connector, you should use parentheses to indicate precisely what you want to search for.
For example, apple and pear or orange juice could mean
- (apple and pear) or orange, or
- apple and (pear or orange)